635 409
Full Length Article
American Journal of Business and Operations Research
Volume 3 , Issue 2, PP: 77-93 , 2021 | Cite this article as | XML | Html |PDF

Title

A Blockchain-Based Voting System for E-Elections in Totalitarian States

Authors Names :   Mohammad Reza Esfandyari   1     Mohammad Hossin shafiabadi   2 *  

1  Affiliation :  Department of Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

    Email :  777.re28@gmail.com


2  Affiliation :  Department of Computer Engineering, IslamShahhr Branch, Islamic Azad University, IslamShahr, Iran

    Email :   shafiabadi@iiau.ac.ir



Doi   :   https://doi.org/10.54216/AJBOR.030202

Received: December 26, 2020 Accepted: May 19, 2021

Abstract :

The purpose of the present research was to introduce a blockchain-based voting system so that any state, including totalitarian states, can show interest in using it. In this method, a hybrid voting system with two centralized and distributed systems was used. Its centralized system is one of the most common voter identification and polling models, and its distributed system, which is designed with Ethereum public blockchain, is voting for voters. Totalitarian states are not interested in announcing the results online. Also, the lack of trust in E-voting systems by both states and voters has led to E-voting in important political elections in most states as support for manual or paper voting. Based on the results of field research with this voting system, it was possible to create a 7 min break between the end of the voting process and the announcement of the results for political considerations. This break can be increased by agreement. The results of the votes cannot be manipulated in any way. Survey results should also be communicated to voters before the voting process. This voting system can improve the level of democracy and maximum participation. It is hoped that the spread of distributed technologies, especially the blockchain, will pave the way for the spread of justice and democracy around the world.

Keywords :

E-Voting , Blockchain , Ethereum , Distributed Systems ,  Electronic Democracy , Electronic elections

References :

[1]      A. Behera, “Shivarthu : A new blockchain based , decentralized fair democracy inspired by,” 2020.

[2]      J. Susskind, “Decrypting Democracy: Incentivizing Blockchain Voting Technology for an Improved Election System,” San Diego Law Rev., vol. 54, no. 4, p. 785, 2017.

[3]      U. C. Çabuk, E. Adıgüzel, and E. Karaarslan, “A Survey on Feasibility and Suitability of Blockchain Techniques for the E-Voting Systems,” Ijarcce, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 124–134, 2018, doi: 10.17148/ijarcce.2018.7324.

[4]      J. P. Gibson, R. Krimmer, V. Teague, and J. Pomares, “A review of E-voting: the past, present and future,” Ann. des Telecommun. Telecommun., vol. 71, no. 7–8, pp. 279–286, 2016, doi: 10.1007/s12243-016-0525-8.

[5]      A. K. Koç, E. Yavuz, U. C. Çabuk, and G. Dalkiliç, “Towards secure e-voting using ethereum blockchain,” 6th Int. Symp. Digit. Forensic Secur. ISDFS 2018 - Proceeding, vol. 2018-Janua, no. February, pp. 1–6, 2018, doi: 10.1109/ISDFS.2018.8355340.

[6]      G. Dini, “A secure and available electronic voting service for a large-scale distributed system,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 69–85, 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0167-739X(02)00109-7.

[7]      L. Zuo, N. Kumar, H. Tu, A. Singh, N. Chilamkurti, and S. Rho, “Detection and analysis of secure intelligent universal designated verifier signature scheme for electronic voting system,” J. Supercomput., vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 177–199, 2014, doi: 10.1007/s11227-014-1149-2.

[8]      A. Alam, S. M. Zia Ur Rashid, M. Abdus Salam, and A. Islam, “Towards Blockchain-Based E-voting System,” 2018 Int. Conf. Innov. Sci. Eng. Technol. ICISET 2018, pp. 351–354, 2018, doi: 10.1109/ICISET.2018.8745613.

[9]      P. C. Wei, D. Wang, Y. Zhao, S. K. S. Tyagi, and N. Kumar, “Blockchain data-based cloud data integrity protection mechanism,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 102, pp. 902–911, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.future.2019.09.028.

[10]    P. Noizat, Blockchain Electronic Vote. Elsevier Inc., 2015.

[11]    L. Zhu, Y. Wu, K. Gai, and K. K. R. Choo, “Controllable and trustworthy blockchain-based cloud data management,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 91, pp. 527–535, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.future.2018.09.019.

[12]    B. Lee and J. H. Lee, “Blockchain-based secure firmware update for embedded devices in an Internet of Things environment,” J. Supercomput., vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 1152–1167, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s11227-016-1870-0.

[13]    J. H. Huh and K. Seo, “Blockchain-based mobile fingerprint verification and automatic log-in platform for future computing,” J. Supercomput., vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 3123–3139, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s11227-018-2496-1.

[14]    N. Gohar, S. Noor, F. F. Babar, A. Malik, and S. Shaheen, “Dynamics of manipulation in voting, veto and plurality,” Cluster Comput., vol. 22, pp. 7333–7345, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s10586-018-1921-9.

[15]    W. J. Lai, Y. C. Hsieh, C. W. Hsueh, and J. L. Wu, “DATE: A Decentralized, Anonymous, and Transparent E-voting System,” Proc. 2018 1st IEEE Int. Conf. Hot Information-Centric Networking, HotICN 2018, no. HotICN, pp. 24–29, 2019, doi: 10.1109/HOTICN.2018.8605994.

[16]    D. Khoury, E. F. Kfoury, A. Kassem, and H. Harb, “Decentralized Voting Platform Based on Ethereum Blockchain,” 2018 IEEE Int. Multidiscip. Conf. Eng. Technol. IMCET 2018, pp. 224–229, 2019, doi: 10.1109/IMCET.2018.8603050.

[17]    X. Fan, T. Wu, Q. Zheng, Y. Chen, M. Alam, and X. Xiao, “HSE-Voting: A secure high-efficiency electronic voting scheme based on homomorphic signcryption,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.future.2019.10.016.

[18]    K. M. Khan, J. Arshad, and M. M. Khan, “Investigating performance constraints for blockchain based secure e-voting system,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 105, pp. 13–26, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.future.2019.11.005.

[19]    F. S. Hardwick, A. Gioulis, R. N. Akram, and K. Markantonakis, “E-Voting with Blockchain: An E-Voting Protocol with Decentralisation and Voter Privacy,” Proc. - IEEE 2018 Int. Congr. Cybermatics 2018 IEEE Conf. Internet Things, Green Comput. Commun. Cyber, Phys. Soc. Comput. Smart Data, Blockchain, Comput. Inf. Technol. iThings/Gree, pp. 1561–1567, 2018, doi: 10.1109/Cybermatics_2018.2018.00262.

[20]    “Blockchain-Enabled E-voting By: Nir Kshetri and Jeffrey Voas Kshetri, Nir and Voas, J. (2018)." Blockchain-Enabled E-voting ", IEEE,” vol. 35, pp. 95–99, 2018.

[21]    Y. Zhu, K. Riad, R. Guo, G. Gan, and R. Feng, “New instant confirmation mechanism based on interactive incontestable signature in consortium blockchain,” Front. Comput. Sci., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1182–1197, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s11704-017-6338-8.

[22]    O. O. Malomo, D. B. Rawat, and M. Garuba, “Next-generation cybersecurity through a blockchain-enabled federated cloud framework,” J. Supercomput., vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 5099–5126, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s11227-018-2385-7.

[23]    P. Jiang, F. Guo, K. Liang, J. Lai, and Q. Wen, “Searchain: Blockchain-based private keyword search in decentralized storage,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.future.2017.08.036.

[24]    R. Sakwa, “The Future of Russian Democracy,” Gov. Oppos., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 517–537, 2011, doi: 10.1111/j.1477-7053.2011.01348.x.

[25]    S. M. Danish, M. Lestas, H. K. Qureshi, K. Zhang, W. Asif, and M. Rajarajan, “Securing the LoRaWAN join procedure using blockchains,” Cluster Comput., vol. 8, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s10586-020-03064-8.

[26]    B. Yu et al., “Platform-Independent Secure Blockchain-Based Voting System,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (including Subser. Lect. Notes Artif. Intell. Lect. Notes Bioinformatics), vol. 11060 LNCS, pp. 369–386, 2018, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-99136-8_20.

[27]    D. Pavithran, K. Shaalan, J. N. Al-Karaki, and A. Gawanmeh, “Towards building a blockchain framework for IoT,” Cluster Comput., 2020, doi: 10.1007/s10586-020-03059-5.

[28]    J. Feng, X. Zhao, K. Chen, F. Zhao, and G. Zhang, “Towards random-honest miners selection and multi-blocks creation: Proof-of-negotiation consensus mechanism in blockchain networks,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 105, pp. 248–258, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.future.2019.11.026.

[29]    L. Feng, H. Zhang, W. T. Tsai, and S. Sun, “System architecture for high-performance permissioned blockchains,” Front. Comput. Sci., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1151–1165, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s11704-018-6345-4.

[30]    B. Shahzad and J. Crowcroft, “Trustworthy Electronic Voting Using Adjusted Blockchain Technology,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 24477–24488, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2895670.

[31]    A. Ben Ayed, “A Conceptual Secure Blockchain Based Electronic Voting System,” Int. J. Netw. Secur. Its Appl., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 01–09, 2017, doi: 10.5121/ijnsa.2017.9301.

[32]    Y. Liu and Q. Wang, “An E-voting Protocol Based on Blockchain,” IACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch., p. 1043, 2017.

[33]    I. Kubjas, “Using blockchain for enabling internet voting,” pp. 1–6, 2017, doi: 10.1007/s00216-001-1099-4.

[34]    Q. Lu, X. Xu, Y. Liu, I. Weber, L. Zhu, and W. Zhang, “uBaaS: A unified blockchain as a service platform,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 101, pp. 564–575, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.future.2019.05.051.

[35]    R. Hanifatunnisa and B. Rahardjo, “Blockchain based e-voting recording system design,” Proceeding 2017 11th Int. Conf. Telecommun. Syst. Serv. Appl. TSSA 2017, vol. 2018-Janua, pp. 1–6, 2018, doi: 10.1109/TSSA.2017.8272896.

[36]    M. Pawlak, A. Poniszewska-Maránda, and N. Kryvinska, “Towards the intelligent agents for blockchain e-voting system,” Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 141, pp. 239–246, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2018.10.177.

[37]    B. Wang, J. Sun, Y. He, D. Pang, and N. Lu, “Large-scale Election Based on Blockchain,” Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 129, pp. 234–237, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2018.03.063.

[38]    M. N. Saqib et al., “Anonymous and formally verified dual signature based online e-voting protocol,” Cluster Comput., vol. 22, pp. 1703–1716, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s10586-018-2162-7.

[39]    R. Casado-Vara and J. M. Corch ado, “Blockchain for Democratic Voting: How Blockchain Could Cast off Voter Fraud,” Orient. J. Comput. Sci. Technol., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 01–03, 2018, doi: 10.13005/ojcst11.01.01.


Cite this Article as :
Mohammad Reza Esfandyari , Mohammad Hossin shafiabadi, A Blockchain-Based Voting System for E-Elections in Totalitarian States, American Journal of Business and Operations Research, Vol. 3 , No. 2 , (2021) : 77-93 (Doi   :  https://doi.org/10.54216/AJBOR.030202)